Urethral diverticulum in females is a localized outpouching of the urethra into the anterior vaginal wall. Most often present in the mid or distal urethra, urethral diverticula result from enlargement of obstructed periurethral glands.
Although urethral diverticulum is often difficult to diagnose, it has been identified with increasing frequency over the past several decades because of increased physician awareness of the condition. The most common symptoms associated with urethral diverticula include urinary frequency, urgency, and dysuria. In some cases, urethral carcinoma and calculi are also present.
Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for urethral diverticulum. With appropriate surgical management, cure rates are high, and recurrences are rare.